Cerebral Vasculitis


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Home :: Diseases :: Cerebral Vasculitis

Cerebral Vasculitis

Causes of central nervous system Cerebral Vasculitis

Primary CNS vasculitides
1. Granulomatous angiitis of the nervous system
2. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus-associated cerebral angiitis
3. Cogan's syndrome
4. Eales' disease
5. Isolated spinal cord arteritis
Systemic necrotizing vasculitides that often affect the CNS
1. Polyarteritis nodosa group
a. Classic polyarteritis nodosa
b. Churg-Strauss vasculitis
c. Drug-associated vasculitis
d. Hepatitis B virus-associated vasculitis
2. Giant cell arteritis
3. Takayasu's aortitis
4. Wegener's granulomatosis
5. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis
6. Henoch-Schönlein purpura
7. Cryoglobulinemia
Rheumatologic diseases associated with CNS involvement, due to vasculitis or other mechanisms
1. Systemic lupus erythematosus
2. Progressive systemic sclerosis
3. Mixed connective tissue disease
4. Sjögren's syndrome
5. Rheumatoid disease
6. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
7. Polymyositis/dermatomyositis
8. Behçet's syndrome
9. Lyme disease
10. Ankylosing spondylitis
11. Reiter's syndrome
Nonrheumatologic/vasculitic disease
1. Sarcoidosis
2. Inflammatory bowel disease
3. Drugs
a. Allopurinol
b. Amphetamines
c. Cocaine
d. Heroin
e. Ephedrine
4. Local infections: bacteria, viruses, protozoa, rickettsia, mycoplasma
5. Mimics of vasculitis: moyamoya, acute hypertension, -ra-diation vasculopathy, anticardiolipin antibody syndrome, sickle cell disease, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

Diagnosis of Cerebral Vasculitis

The first step in diagnosing Cerebral Vasculitis is considering the diagnosis; the second step is seriously considering all the other nonvasculitic processes that might be at work. There is no historical feature, physical finding, or laboratory test, other than biopsy, that incontrovertibly establishes the diagnosis of CNS Cerebral Vasculitis, primary/isolated or secondary to a systemic vasculitis. Furthermore, all that alters blood flow, even with angiographic evidence of damage, is not necessarily vasculitis (i.e., inflammation of the blood vessel).

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